Global Warming Control
Global warming, can be defined as an increase in the earth’s atmospheric, oceanic temperatures and an overall change in earth’s atmosphere including a rise in sea levels and variability of snow falls. Climate change and associated impacts vary from region to region around the globe. Due to increase in the greenhouse effect resulting especially from pollution and other activities such as, greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activities mainly industrial processes and transportation.
“GLOBAL WARMING” = “CLIMATE CHANGE.”
What is the greenhouse effect? According to, IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change) “Greenhouse gases effectively absorb thermal infra-red radiation, emitted by the Earth’s surface, by the atmosphere itself due to the same gases, and by clouds. Atmospheric radiation is emitted to all sides. Thus, greenhouse gases trap heat within the surface-troposphere system. This is called the Greenhouse effect”
1. Population Increase
2. Mining activities
2. Burning of Fossil Fuels
5. Water Vapour
6. Plankton boom due to warming seas
7. Rise in sea levels
8. Aerosols present in the Atmosphere
9. Methane and Nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture, Arctic sea beds and factories
11. Ozone Depletion
12. Increase in co2 concentration
|1. Replace Regular Incandescent Light bulb
2. Drive Less or Carpool
3. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
4. Go Solar
5. Buy Energy-Efficient Appliances
6. Reduce Waste
7. Use Less Hot Water
8. Avoid Products With Lot of Packaging
9. Install a Programmable Thermostat
10. Turn Off the Lights
11. Turn off Electronic Devices
12. Plant a Tree
13. Use Clean Fuel
14. Look for Renewable Fuel Options
15. Save Energy
16. Replace Filters on Air Conditioner and Furnace
17. Go Green
18. Tune Your Car Regularly
|19. Download Earth Saving Apps
20. Conserve Water
21. Stop Idling Your Car
22. Eat Less Hamburger
23. Use Clothesline to Dry Your Clothes
24. Eat Naturally
25. Ride Your Bike
26. Use a Kitchen Cloth Instead of Paper Towels
27. Reuse Towels
28. Check Your Tires
29. Take Lunch in a Tupperware.
30. Wrap your water heater in insulation
31. Get Home Energy Audit Done
32. Become Part of the Global Warming Community
33. Actually celebrate Arbor Day and Earth day
34. Become Aware of Your Contribution
35. Spread the Awareness
Trees store carbon While they are growing, trees use sunlight to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store it as carbon in the form of wood
One of the practical ways to combat climate change is to plant more trees in order to take more carbon out of the atmosphere (as long as the trees are planted in the right place).
Younger trees absorb carbon dioxide quickly while they are growing, but as a tree ages a steady state is eventually reached, and at this point the amount of carbon absorbed through photosynthesis is similar to that lost through respiration and decay. If trees are harvested carefully near this time in the growth cycle, and new trees are planted or allowed to regenerate, then this can keep the forest as a net “sink” of carbon. Therefore careful woodland management can mean that woodlands are able to take up the maximum amount of carbon possible.
Their analysis indicates that three key factors are involved:
“Forests are very beneficial to the climate because they take up carbon and increase cloudiness, which in turn helps cool the planet,” –Dr.Balu.
Biodiversity influences climate at local, regional and global levels, yet most climate models do not take biodiversity into consideration because its variables and effects are too diverse and complex to compute. Two recent studies, however, demonstrate the importance of being able to consider the response of vegetation to elevated levels of carbon dioxide in climate models as we try to predict our climate future.
Scientists at the Carnegie Institution for Science found that carbon dioxide’s direct effects on vegetation contribute to global warming. Through the pores called stomata in their leaves, plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that they use for photosynthesis. They then give off water through the stomata in a process called evapotran spiration which cools the plant just as perspiration cools human beings. Evapotran spiration also cools the surrounding air—a tree can transpire up to ten gallons of water on a hot day. But when carbon dioxide levels increase, plants’ stomata shrink, releasing less water into the air and reducing the cooling effect.
Carnegie scientists Long Cao and Ken Caldeira doubled the level of carbon dioxide in their model and found that globally the reduced evapotranspiration was responsible for 16 percent of the land warming; the rest was due to CO2’s heat-trapping effects. In North America and Asia, more than 25 percent of the warming was due to the impact of increased CO2 on vegetation. “There is no longer any doubt that carbon dioxide decreases evaporative cooling by plants and that this decreased cooling adds to global warming,” said Cao. “This effect would cause significant warming even if carbon dioxide were not a greenhouse gas.”
Another effect of the doubled CO2 is increased runoff from the land as more precipitation bypasses the plant’s evapotranspiration system and makes its way directly into streams and rivers.
The Carnegie study did not take into consideration other effects of increased carbon dioxide such as an increase in leaf area, variations in vegetative distribution and resulting changes in albedo (the reflectivity of Earth’s surfaces which affects how much solar radiation is absorbed). These aspects were fixed in their model. But they cited earlier research on increased CO2 that showed that cooling due to increased leaf area produced an overall cooling effect over land, and that a decrease in albedo due to the expansion of coniferous forests resulted in land warming.
“These results really show that how plants respond to carbon dioxide is very important for making good climate predictions,” said Caldeira. “So if we want to improve climate predictions, we need to improve the representation of land plants in the climate models.
A new NASA study that did take plant growth into consideration found that doubling the level of CO2 resulted in a cooling effect. The model used by Lahouari Bounoua of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., was innovative in its consideration of a reaction that plants have to increased CO2 called “down-regulation.” Down-regulation is the process that enables plants to use water and nutrients more efficiently when there is increased CO2, so that they are able to maintain previous levels of photosynthesis, which can ultimately boost leaf growth.
The increased leaf area resulted in more evapotranspiration globally, and thus created a cooling effect. The amount of cooling in the study measured -0.6 degrees C (-1.1 F) over land, compared to models that didn’t include down-regulation.
Bounoua stressed, however, that the cooling was not enough to offset the warming trends that are predicted.
Climate models usually factor in a doubling of CO2 to simulate global warming, and scientists generally agree that under this scenario, temperatures would increase from 2 to 4.5 degrees C (3.5 to 8.0 F). Bounoua’s model found a warming of 1.94 degrees C globally without the inclusion of down-regulation. The range in temperature results from unknowns about various “feedbacks,” i.e. how the various systems on Earth such as clouds, plant growth, methane release, the water cycle, albedo, etc. might respond to warming and interact with each other.
Bounoua and her colleagues also looked at how plant growth is stimulated by warmer temperatures, increased precipitation in some areas, and the plants’ more efficient use of water and nutrients when CO2 is doubled. The results suggest that in the long term, increases in vegetation due to elevated CO2 might reduce temperatures after CO2 levels stabilize.
“As we learn more about how these systems react, we can learn more about how the climate will change,” said the study’s co-author Forrest Hall. “Each year we get better and better.”
New climate models are being designed to consider dynamic global vegetation that allows plant types to shift interactively with climate, and ecosystem demography that accounts for how communities of diverse plants might respond to climate change over time.